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History

Weights & Measures in 1834
History & more on Lignières...

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Weights and measures used in 1834

Source: "l'Almanach 1834 de Neuchâtel en Suisse, imprimerie C.-H. Wolfrath"
Free translation - some french terms left as is in Italic : if you know their translation, please do let me know.
(English suggestions in red by David Dowd)

The Neuchâtel £ equals to 17 ounces. One ounce contains 24 "deniers" (English = from Roman denarius, Pennyweight. Although the Neuchatel denier was 11% smaller than the Imperial pennyweight (abolished 1985), it was less than 2% different from the English silver dwt. of 1346) and one denier contains 24 grains.

The Neuchâtel foot equals to 130 "lignes" (English = English printers' term LINE for 1/12th inch (though English watchmakers preferred the French spelling)) of the old French foot.
It is divided into 12 "pouces" (English = 0.024 691 358 metres, therefore equal to 0.972 1 Imperial inches), the pouce into 12 lignes.

The "aune" (English = probably Ell) is equal to 45 inches 5 595/1000 lignes. 9 aunes equal to exactly 10 meters of France.

The common "toise" (English = was the French equivalent of the English FATHOM though in France it had importance on land as well as sea, and was the scientific unit of length prior to the Metric System) has 10 feet - the one of hay 6 feet

The field "perche" (English = though not the same in size, obviously the same as PERCH in origin) equals to 15 feet 8 inches, but divides itself into 16 parts.

The "faux" (English = no true equivalent, being considerably bigger than the English ACRE (but very close indeed to the Irish ACRE)) contains 2 poses.

The pose is a square of 16 perches by 8 wide.

The "ouvrier de vigne", (English = looks like the Burgundian OUVREE which was exactly 1/10 English ACRE (and so called DECIMAL in India under the Raj) which is the perche is 4096 square feet.

The wood toise is a long solid of 10 feet, 5 high and 3 deep.

The hay toise is a 6 feet cube in all dimmensions.

The manure "voiture" (English = Butt but different content/size) must be 36 cubic feet.

The Neuchâtel pot equals to precisely 96 French cubic inches.

21 pots equal to 40 French "Mitres" (English = 0.758 692 litres - presumably a bottle size - if I have calculated this correctly, it is almost exactly the French BOUTEILLE CHAMPENOISE)

The pot divides itself in half - pot, third and quarter of pot. 8 pots make a brochet.
16 pots equal to one setier, 20 pots equal one brande. The muid equals 192 pots, or 12 setiers, or five times 38 2/5 pots, produces in moût one gerle of vintage.
The bosse equals 480 pots.
For dry substances, the pot divides the same as liquids, except that the thirds are called Capet.

8 pots equal to 1 "émine", (English = is the French version of Latin HEMINA (From Greek 'EMINA; Southern French HEMINE = 50 litres), and the nearest English measure is the old standard BUCKET (Neuchatel eimer = 88% of English bucketful) 8 émines make a fac and 3 facs a muid... which is also 192 pots.

But in Land taxes the copet is a pot and the setier in Le Landeron equals 8 pots.

The émine for the oat contains 8 "picotins" (English = presumably is a diminutive of a larger 'picot' (which is interesting to me etymologically as picot originally meant 'point, prick' and various barrel sizes in a number of countries had their own version of this derivation, e.g., English puncheon [Fr. poincon] - but nobody knows why!)) or 8 pots 1/3. The picotin is therefore slightly larger than the ordinary pot.

The diametre of all these measures, whether rases or to the brim, must always be the double of their height.